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对电影、镜头、文学、画面、表达、视觉感兴趣,最近对交际、关系、性格、建筑也感兴趣,混于游戏行业,学习并成长。

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形的层级<转>  

2015-09-18 16:50:43|  分类: 绘画理论&理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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原文地址:http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4a9365fa0102dyvz.html


老早就想写类似的,一直比较懒,毕业论文里提到这个东西,但是这篇所述更加形象直观而且拓宽了它的面。其实是很基础的东西,和点线面这些一样属于设计构成的基本层面的东西。但是实际应用中,包括工作中,虽然脑子里都会想着这些,可出来的感觉适合不适合好看不好看又是另一码事情了。
我们设计的时候都会说元素,啊,要某个文明的一些感觉,加点gothic的元素,或者steampunk的元素,xx元素,元素。。 抛开这些附着的“皮肉”,构成才是所有这些的骨架和精髓。因为我们经常遇到或者看到别人有这种问题:给你一堆很有feel的元素,你设计出来的东西依旧不那么给力,造型不耐看。
形的层级

关于这些造型,或者形,一类是像朱峰说的“道法自然”,即从自然万物中提取造型,注意是提取而不是挪用,因为这里涉及到你如何简练优化这个形,让这个形既有他的模仿物得感觉,又带上设计物所要传达的感觉,譬如科技感。

另外一种即抽象形,比如搜abstract art,会出来很多图,但是优美和谐与否又是另一回事情。它比较接近我想说的那个,也是我觉得比较难的,就像天赋一样,某些人天生对这些图形的感觉就很好。但是这是可以后天训练的。

scott robertson的很多作品都是利用这种抽象构成来设计,包括他的一些场景小稿也是单纯从黑白图形的角度出发考虑,比如下面这些图:。 那些场景小稿的启示就是,对一个事物我们可以从不同的角度去思考,它是和谐优美的图形shape,同样又是构图composition。我们经常就悲哀了,啊,我这个场景感觉不好看啊,起稿的时候就没有感觉啊。但是你看下面的那些小稿,只是从图形shape的角度去思考,虽然还只是一些富于变化的抽象形,用了些简单的颜色区分,但是已经很有feel了。

形的层级
形的层级
形的层级
形的层级
形的层级

再来几张感性认识一下:很简单的一些形状,但是他的大小变化,分布组合,这些构成规则的运用,赋予了简单的东西很丰富的变化。天天说节奏韵律,节奏韵律,这些就是,而且是最本质的。你不需要繁复的花纹和别致的其他什么元素,如果你只用一些简单的形状就能做出不俗的shapes,那么恭喜,你的内力已经上去了,怎么用元素只是外功而已。

形的层级
形的层级
形的层级

下面整合了一些Neil Blevins的文章,小翻译一下



This lesson is all about Primary, Secondary and Tertiary shapes, what they are and how to use them. This concept is also sometimes referred to as "Big, Medium, Small", as in, if your image has a nice distribution of big (primary), medium (secondary) and small (tertiary) shapes, the resulting image will tend to be more pleasing to the eye.

本课我们来谈谈一级二级三级形状,它们是什么,如何利用。这个概念也就是通常我们知道的 大、中、小。假如你的画面里面,大(一级)、中(二级)、小(三级)形的发布很nice,那么出来的结果多少会看着舒服。

First, a definition. Primary shapes are your big shapes. If you squint at an image, the details tend to disappear and you're left with only your big shapes.

Secondary shapes are the smaller shapes that either sit ontop of, or help make up the primary shapes.

Tertiary shapes are again smaller than the secondary shapes.

Here's three 2D diagrams showing primary, secondary and tertiary shapes in a fake composition. Even though this is 2d, the exact same rules apply to 3d.
形的层级
首先我们来定义一下。 一级形是画面里最大最显眼的形,假如你眯着眼看图,所有的细节消失后那个最大的形状就是。
二级形,小些的形状,既可以组合于一级形之上,也可以用于凸显一级形。
三级形是比二级形更小的形状。
下面是3个2d图形,形象直观的表述了这3个概念,这种原则性的东西对于2d 3d都是适用的。(小插入:在中国对3d的理解太片面了,那么多人天天这个群那个班嚷着要画画要设计,没见几个说想成为3d artist。你把设计理论和造型色彩都掌握好了,必要的“功夫在诗外”的那些功夫都练好了,你管我用画笔还是刻刀还是键盘鼠标?我拉一个屌爆了的3d概念艺术家,相同时间内出概念的效率和一个屌爆了的2d concept artist是不相上下的,除了叫speed painting的,还有叫speed sculpture的,试试就知道了 )
First off, what should the size of these details be? Well, that depends on personal taste. I like having the primary details being huge, almost the size of the image itself. And I like Tertiary details being really small, sometimes the size of a pixel or two. From there you can decide the appropriate size for the Secondary Details. Of course, not all details should be the same size, it's more like a range of sizes, so not all secondary details should be the same size, but should be in a similar range.
首先,那些细节应该多大?好吧,这个看个人口味。我个人口重,喜欢一级形比较大的,差不多和这张图差不多大。然后我喜欢把三级形弄的很小,有时候可能只是一两个像素点。之后呢你可以决定二级形多大合适。当然,不是说所有细节都要差不多大小,你要给他们一个合理的范围,合理的区间。二级形也是同理。
So these could be primary, secondary and tertiary shapes....
形的层级
But so can these...
形的层级
And these...
形的层级
Next comes the distribution of these details. Take a look at this image, it has all 3 levels of detail, but the tertiary shapes are in one uniform block...
下面就来分布分布细节(三级形状)。看看下面这个图,他是有了3个层级,但是看看那个排列规则的3级形,我就不想说什么了。。。。
形的层级
Many images suffer from this problem, huge blocks of small repeating patterns. For example, you get this effect if you place a procedural noise with no variation on a surface.
就像上图那样,很多图像啊,在处理这个细节(三级形)的时候都存在这种问题,一大片一大片重复的相同的小纹理啊我操。就像下图,用3d软件的某些程式化纹理的时候就出来这样的东西,不但假而且毫无变化,无趣。
形的层级
This does not provide the eye any spot to rest. So in general you want to vary the placement of your tertiary details so that they are more random, and have several areas of detail, and several areas of no detail.
这就不能给眼睛提供一些休息的点,到处东西到处密密匝匝。所以你应该给你的三级形的分布多些变化,让它们更随机更自然点。一些地方给点细节,一些地方留点白。下面这图经过变化就好多了么。
形的层级
Notice how this is easier to digest. The eye can look at the detailed lower right corner, then move to the center of the image and rest there for a moment (in the big area of little detail) before looking at more tertiary details elsewhere.
就比如上图,你的眼睛看到了右下细节多的地方,然后视点移往中心的那片留白区稍事休息,接着又看到其他细节多的地方。

This is another reason why natural patterns generally look better than out of the box procedural patterns. Natural patterns tend to have areas of lots of detail, and areas of very little detail, and they're placed in a more random fashion. Of course, through mixing and what not, you can get a more "organic" quality from procedurals, but procedurals right out of the box generally don't give you that kind of variety. See my Complex Shaders Using Procedurals, The Green Tongue lesson for a discussion on how to get more variety from your procedurals.

这就是为什么自然纹理往往看着比软件的程式化纹理舒服点的原因。自然纹理有一些区域有很多细节,有些区域有一点一些,并且都是很随机的。当然,你用max什么的做程式化纹理,只要用些混合手段,出来的效果看着也挺“有机”的。关于如何把程式化纹理做的更富于变化,请看我的其他文章。


Here's a photo of a rock in greyscale. Notice the variety in the patterns.
下面是一张岩石的黑白照片,注意上面纹理的变化。
形的层级
下面这个例子就很好,就算你只有圆柱形,但是如果你手段比较高明,依然可以做出好看的造型。
Here's another example of building up shapes. First, lets start with a cylinder, maybe this will be a pipe for a robot.
形的层级
Now lets place some secondary shapes, rings around the pipe.
现在放些二级形,环绕管子的圆环。
形的层级
Now that's more interesting, but the regular pattern is kind of boring. Lets vary the position of the secondary rings...
这样有意思了点,但是圆环的规则排布有点boring。那把它们得位置变变。
形的层级
Better, but all the secondary shapes are the same size, lets vary the sizes a bit...
恩,这样更好了点,但是所有的二级形都是一样的大小,我们再来调整下二级形的大小
形的层级
Looking better. We now have variety in the sizes of the secondary shapes, and we have areas with lots of secondary shapes, and areas with no secondary shapes. Lets add a few tertiary shapes...
更好了。现在我们让二级形在大小上也产生了变化,而且哪些地方有 ,哪些地方没有都比较顺眼。接着再添加些三级形。
形的层级
Now we have a well balanced composition.

Here's a few paint overs of some of my images showing the primary, secondary and tertiary shapes...

形的层级
In this case, the giant tower is the primary shape (a cylinder). That shape is made up of many secondary shapes, pipes and large pieces of concrete, and the entrance. The tertiary shapes are the tiny ships, and tiny lights along the surface of the tower, many of which are just a few pixels large. This helps give the piece a good sense of scale.
上图,这个巨塔就是一级形(柱形)。这个一级形其实是很多二级形组合而成的,各种管子啊,大块得混凝土啊,一些入口一样的东西啊。三级形在上图就是一些小飞船,巨塔表面的小灯光,很多这些三级形就是几个像素的大小。这些呢都很好地体现了画面中物体的尺寸感觉。
形的层级
The primary shape is the shape made by the creature against the background. Then there's some larger tentacles, which are secondary shapes. Then there are more tiny tentacles, and grass, etc., which are tertiary shapes. If the image had no tertiary shapes, it would feel like something's missing.
形的层级

Robots are a great opportunity for practicing "Big, Medium, Small". In this image, the larger shape of the creature is the primary shape. Then that has secondary shapes on it like the front panel or eye. Then those have tiny tertiary shapes on them as well, such as nuts, panel lines, small raised panels, etc. Also note that there aren't tertiary shapes everywhere on the secondary shapes, there are areas of lots of detail, and areas of no detail. Also notice just how small some of the tertiary shapes are compared to the secondary shapes.

机械物体很适合拿来练习形的层次组合。上图的那个玩意儿,本体剪影就是一级形,然后前方的那块像眼睛的板是二级形。然后它们各自上面又有一些三级细节。比如一些螺栓,板上的直线,小点的突出的板等等。同时注意,这些三级细节并非搞的到处都是。  然后也请注意,同一些二级形比较,某些三级细节显得很小,这个就是给人关于他的尺寸比例上的一些暗示。


To summarize, when making your images...


Have large, medium, and small shapes.
Have variety to the size of shapes in each of the three categories.
Make sure these details are placed somewhat chaotically to avoid obvious patterns.
And make sure there are areas of lots of details, and areas of almost no details.
And remember, just because these are the rules doesn't mean you necessary have to follow them. But if you don't follow them, you need to be aware that you're not following them, and what sort of affect that will have on the viewer.
总结一下,当我们弄图图的时候。。。
1,要有大中小的形(再有四五六级当然也可以,关键是层次)
2,每一级形在大小上要有一个合适的变化区间,不至于单调(看情况,有些就是很死板的规律图形)
3,摆放三级细节的时候随机点随意点自然点,避免假的感觉
4,一些地方搞点细节,一些地方留白
然后记住,不要因为有这些规则就一定要遵循这些规则。但是假如你没遵循这个规则的时候,你要自己有这个意识,你是否可以给别人呈现其他的全新的视觉感受。
—。—||| —。—||| —。—||| —。—||| —。—||| —。—||| —。—||| —。—
更加总结一下: 要有层次。。。。。。。
最后,关于一些规则规律,你可以把他理解为构成和设计上面的,也可以理解为画面的构图上的,也可以理解如何处理贴图细节上的。都一样

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